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2014), or for the sake of ransom (ibid.; AP 16 June 2014). The USCIRF reports that, regarding the situation of Copts in 2014, blasphemy convictions, restrictions on church building, limits on conversion and "lack of accountability for violent attacks" remain in place (US 30 Apr. In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, an assistant professor of Middle Eastern studies at the University of Kiel, who specializes in contemporary Egypt, expressed his view that the risk of violence for Copts were the same in 2014 and "since the election of President al-Sisi," noting that, although sectarian violence has decreased in comparison to 2013, "tensions and the threat of potential sectarian violence remain a constant problem" (Assistant Professor 14 Apr. In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a professor of Middle Eastern history at the American University in Cairo expressed the opinion that Copts have felt "more hopeful about their situation" with the election of President al-Sisi but that "the threat of sectarian violence and terrorist violence remains a general problem" (17 Apr. The Assistant Professor explained that "sectarian violence" is a problem occurring mostly among "regular Muslims and Copts," involving mob attacks on Coptic property, shops, and private homes, with the degree of violence ranging from damage and looting to arson and complete destruction of property, as well as verbal and/or physical assaults against individuals, sometimes leading to up to a "handful" of fatalities (Assistant Professor 14 Apr. He further explained that the purpose of such attacks is mostly to "intimidate and humble Christians, to destroy their livelihoods and possibly force them to migrate" (ibid.). Al-Monitor reports that sectarian problems have been "rampant" in Minya, particularly in the village of Delga (Al-Monitor 24 Apr. Areas of Cairo (Research Fellow ; Assistant Professor 14 Apr. 2015), where Copts have been targeted and "severely threatened" by militias swearing allegiance to Islamic State (ibid.). According to a January 2015 article by AP, Copts have complained of a rise in kidnappings, armed robberies and assaults between 20 (ibid. The same source explained that, in contrast to sectarian violence, "terrorist attacks" against Copts are perpetuated and planned by a small group of people involving shootings or car bombs and are intended to target and kill larger numbers of people (ibid.). 2015) occupied by poor Coptic migrants arriving from Upper Egypt (ibid.). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies at University of Sussex, who has been researching Coptic issues since 1996, gave the view that "there is a constant unknown as to when a strike against [Copts] might occur and we cannot say that they are not always at risk even if they are not located in hotspots such as Upper Egypt" (Research Fellow ). 2.4 Church-Building AI notes that Coptic Christians have "faced restrictions on building and maintaining their places of worship" (AI 2015). According to the Assistant Professor, church-building has caused sectarian problems in some areas where there is a strong "Salafi presence" (14 Apr. In late March 2015, militants attacked a Coptic church under construction in Al-Our village in Minya, which was being built to honour 21 Egyptian Copts beheaded in Libya (Christian Post 30 Mar. According to the Christian Post, the priest of the church stated that he had called the police several times for assistance but that they arrived late, stopped outside the village instead of guarding the church, and did not intervene against the attackers (Christian Post 30 Mar. Corroborating information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. The owner of the property, the Maghagha archbishopric maintained that they had the necessary permits (ibid.). Sources report that following periods of sectarian violence in al-Galaa in Minya, a customary reconciliation session led Copts to accept the condition of constructing a church without a tower or bells (EIPR 7 Apr. Sources also report that in April 2015, security forces in Maghagha, a village in Minya, stormed a property used for worship services and vandalized the contents, claiming that the site was unlicensed (Egypt Independent 5 Apr. 2.5 Blasphemy Human Rights Watch's World Report 2015 indicates that Egyptian authorities continued to prosecute religious minorities, including writers and activists on charges of "'contempt for religion'" and "'blasphemy'" (Human Rights Watch 29 Jan. According to the Assistant Professor, charges of blasphemy and "offending Islam" have been a rising phenomenon since the 2011 revolution, affecting both Christians and others, and posing a danger both to the individuals accused, as well as in terms of triggering mob violence (14 Apr. Sources report on instances of charges of blasphemy and/or contempt of religion involving Copts, including: In Luxor, a Coptic man was convicted of blasphemy and contempt of religion and sentenced to six years in prison in June 2014 for posting pictures on Facebook that were deemed to be offensive to Islam (AP 24 June 2014). The USCIRF indicated in its 2015 annual report that Copts have welcomed "these and other symbolic gestures" (ibid.). According to Freedom House, an estimated ten percent of the Christian churches and businesses destroyed in attacks in 2013 had been reconstructed by late 2014 (2015). "Small Bombs Explode at 2 Churches in Egypt's Zagazig Sunday, No Injuries." [Accessed 17 Apr.

"Two Homemade Bombs Exploded Near Churches in Zagazig." [Accessed 15 Apr. Freedom House reports that following the removal of President Morsi in June 2013, the Egyptian military controlled Egypt without an elected legislature at the start of 2014 (Freedom House 2015). "Egypt's Minya Province Flashpoint for Muslim-Christian Violence." [Accessed 13 Apr. President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi was elected to office in June 2014 (Human Rights Watch Jan. Sources indicate that Christians have continued to be targeted by Islamic militants in retaliation for their perceived support for the removal of President Morsi (Freedom House 2015; AP 16 June 2014; CSW 26 Sept. Treatment Sources report that Copts experience "discrimination" (AI 2015; The Independent 18 Feb. An "Egypt researcher" for Amnesty International (AI), who was interviewed by the Independent newspaper, stated that societal discrimination against Copts "exists in some parts of the country" such as in areas where there is a large population of Muslim Brotherhood supporters (ibid.). Sources report that during periods of sectarian violence, authorities will call for conciliation meetings between sides, and make temporary arrests on both sides of the conflict (Professor 17 Apr. 2015), and those arrested are then later released (ibid.). Conciliation meetings are, according to Al-Monitor, hearings where "a decision is rendered against one of the parties in the presence of Christian and Muslim leaders, as well as officials from the province and the church" (Al Monitor 25 Apr. According to the Assistant Professor, "witnesses often say that the [authorities'] response is more about calming the situation down than investigating and locating the people responsible" (Assistant Professor 14 Apr. Similarly, the Professor stated that this pattern of response tends to settle tensions for a time, but is "not a permanent solution" to the problems of sectarian violence (Professor 17 Apr. The Research Fellow indicated that "there is an inequality of justice" through these meetings and "Copts are made to make concessions" with the terms of the conciliation being a "gross injustice" for Copts (). "Kidnappings of Copts are Increasing, Appeal to President al-Sisi." [Accessed 15 Apr.

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